Biogas: a “green” gas produced by the decomposition of organic matter in an oxygen-free environment. Before it can be used as a fuel in vehicles, biogas must be refined to remove certain elements (carbon dioxide, water vapor and hydrogen sulphide), resulting in biomethane, which is nearly identical to NGV.
Biomass: the energy stored in biomass can produce electricity, using the heat from the combustion or fermentation of matter such as wood, plants, agricultural residues and organic waste.
Carbon footprint: a measure of the greenhouse gas emissions generated by human activities. The potential impact of these emissions on global warming is expressed in terms of CO2 equivalent, abbreviated as “CO2e”.
Carbon-free energy: energy that does not generate carbon dioxide emissions during its production, unlike energy produced from burning coal. Renewable energies and nuclear energy are considered to be carbon-free.
CDP: formerly the Carbon Disclosure Project, CDP is a not-for-profit organization that publishes yearly information on the environmental impact of leading companies. These disclosures are obtained from three questionnaires; the one on climate change is the most frequently used.
CMF: the Common Module Family is a technology-sharing concept applied to a series of vehicle platforms common to both Renault and Nissan. Using modular architecture principles, it enables a wide range of vehicles to be built using a limited set of parts.
Eco-design: eco-design incorporates environmental considerations into a product’s design from the very start, in order to improve its environmental performance.
Energy mix: the combination of various primary energy sources used in a given geographic region or organization (country, city, industry, etc.). It includes fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energies.
Fuel cell: in a fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen combined to form water, while releasing electricity and heat. This electricity is used to power a vehicle’s electric motor.
GHG: greenhouse gases occurring naturally in the atmosphere. Two of the main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Higher concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are a direct cause of global warming.
Greenhouse Gas Protocol: the GHG Protocol is the organization that develops international standards for measuring carbon footprints. It is the world's most widely used accounting framework for understanding, quantifying and managing greenhouse gas emissions.
Hybrid: a hybrid vehicle uses two forms of propulsion: an internal combustion engine (usually gasoline-powered) and an electric motor.
IEA: the International Energy Agency is an intergovernmental organisation established within the OECD and made up of some 30 member countries, mainly oil-importing. Its missions include ensuring energy supply security, coordinating the energy policies of its member countries and supporting and raising awareness of the reforms needed to address climate change. Each year, the IEA publishes research, such as the “World Energy Outlook”, which provides an overview of the energy industry.
IPCC: the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is an organization of governments, created in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme. Its scientists provide regular assessments of the current knowledge on climate change, its causes, impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.
LPG: liquefied petroleum gas is a mixture of propane and butane. About 40% of LPG comes from oil refining and 60% from the processing of natural gas.
NGV: natural gas for vehicles is a naturally occurring gas made up primarily of methane and used as fuel. It can be found in different forms: compressed (CNG) or liquid (LNG).
Renewable energies: energies generated from natural and continuously replenished resources, such as sunlight, wind, water and matter from living animals and plants. Renewable energies include solar power, wind power, hydraulic power, geothermal energy and biomass energy.
SBTi: the Science Based Targets initiative is a partnership between CDP, the United Nations Global Compact, the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). It helps companies to determine their CO2 emissions reduction trajectories in order to keep global warming below 2°C.
Stationary battery storage: systems designed to store electricity, usually generated by renewable energy, in batteries. These systems can then deliver the electricity on demand.
Tank-to-wheel: CO2 emissions while the vehicle is in use. Also called “exhaust emissions”.
Vehicle to grid (V2G): bidirectional technology enabling the charging of battery electric vehicles (BEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) as well as the return of electricity back to the grid.
Waste recovery: transformation of waste that could not be recycled into another product or energy source.
WLTP: Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure. In the vehicle approval process, WLTP is the procedure for measuring pollutant consumption and emissions under conditions more representative of customer use and the diverse nature of vehicle equipment. This test procedure is supplemented by road tests that use the new Real Driving Emissions (RDE) protocol.